human

Epigenetic Evolution ~ Bibliography

Epigenetic Evolution: A Theory of Cultural Evolution through Directed CreativityAbbott, D.H., Barett, J. and George, L.M. (1993). “Comparative aspects of the social suppression of reproduction in female marmosets and tamarins”, pp. 152-63, in Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behviour and Ecology. (A.B. Rylands ed.) Oxford U. Press

Abegglen, J. (1984). On Socialization in Hamadryas Baboons: A Field Study. Bucknell U. Press

Aberle, D.F. (1974). “Matrilineal Descent in Cross-cultural Perspective”, pp. 655-727, in Matrilineal Kinship (eds. Schneider, DM. and Gough, K.). University of California Press

Alcock, J. (1993). Animal Behavior (5th ed.). Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates

Ardrey, R. (1966). The Territorial Imperative. Dell Publishing

Armitage, K. (1986). “Marmot polygyny re-visited”, pp. 303-331, in Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution (ed. D.I. Rubenstein and R.W. Wrangham). Princeton U. Press

Ayala, F.J. (1998). “Teleological Explanations”, pp. 187-195, in Philosophy of Biology (ed. M. Ruse). Prometheus Books.

Bertram, B.C.R. (1975). “Social Factors Influencing Reproduction in Wild Lions”, Journal of Zoology 177:463-82.

Bohannan, P. and Glazer, M. (1988a), “Introduction”, pp. xii to xxii, in High Points in Anthropology (2nd ed.)(eds. Bohannan and Glazer). McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Bohannan, P. and Glazer, M. (1988b), High Points in Anthropology (2nd ed.)(eds. Bohannan and Glazer). McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Boomsma, J.J., Frouwer, A.H., and Van Loon, A.J. (1990). “A new polygynous Lasius species (Hymenoptera; Formicidae) from Central Europe. II. Allozymatic confirmation of species status and social structure”. Insectes Sociaux 37:363-75

Bourke, A. and Franks, N. (1995). Social Evolution in Ants. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton U. Press

Campbell, D.T. (1960). “Blind Variation and Selective Retention in Creative Thought as in Other Knowledge Processes”, in Psychological Review 67:380-400 Campbell, J. (1982). “Autonomy in Evolution”, pp. 190-201, in Perspectives on

Evolution (ed. Milkman, R.). Sinauer Associates Chomsky, N. (1987). The Chomsky Reader. Pantheon Books Chomsky, N. (1972). Language and Mind. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Chomsky, N. (1966). Cartesian Linguistics. Harper & Row

D’Agostino, F. (1984). “Chomsky on Creativity”, in Synthese 58(1):85-117.

Darwin, C. (1952a). The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (Great Books Series). Encyclopedia Britannica

Darwin, C. (1952b). The Descent of Man (Great Books Series). Encyclopedia Britannica

Dawkins, R. (1989). The Selfish Gene (2nd ed.). Oxford U. Press

Dawkins, R. (1986). The Blind Watchmaker. Longmans

Dennett, D. (1995). Darwin’s Dangerous Idea. Simon and Schuster

Descartes, R. (1956). Discourse on Method (Lafleur, L., ed. and trans.). Bobbs Merrill

Desmond, A. and Moore, J. (1991). Darwin: The Life of a Tormented Evolutionist. Warner Books

De Waal, F. (2006). Primates and Philosphers: How Morality Evolved. (Eds. Macedo, S. and Ober, J.). Princeton U. Press

Diamond, Jared (1999). Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. W.W. Norton & Co.

Diamond, Jared (1992). The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal. Harper Collins

Dixon, R.T. (1984). Dynamic Astronomy. Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Dugatkin, L. (2000). The Imitation Factor: Evolution Beyond the Human Gene. Simon and Schuster

Durant, Will (1944). Ceasar and Christ. Simon and Schuster

Durkheim, E. (1988). “Rules for the Explanation of Social Facts”, pp. 231-53, in High Points in Anthropology (2nd ed.)(eds. Bohannan and Glazer). McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Ehrlich, P. (1971). The Population Bomb. Ballantine Books

Fog, Agner (1999). Cultural Selection. Dordecht: Klewer

Freeman, S. (2011). Biological Science (4th ed). Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Freud, S. (1961). Civilization and Its Discontents (ed. and trans., J. Strachey). W.W. Norton & Co.

Futuyma, D. (1986). Evolutionary Biology (2nd ed.). Sinauer Associates

Gadagkar, R. (1997). Survival Strategies: Cooperation and Conflict in Animal Societies. Harvard U. Press

Gamboa, G.J. (1996), “Kin Recognition in Social Wasps, p. 161-177, in Natural History and Evolution of Paper-Wasps, (eds. Stefano Turillazzi and M.J. West-Eberhard). Oxford U. Press

Gardner, E., Simmons, M., Snustad, D. (1991). Principles of Genetics (8th ed.). John Wiley and Sons

Gill, R.T. (1972). Economics and the Public Interest. Goodyear Publishing Co.

Goodall, J. (1990). Through a Window: My Thirty Years with the Chimpanzees of Gombe. George Weidenfeld and Nicolson

Gotwald, Jr., W.H. (1995). Army Ants: The Biology of Social Predation. Cornell U. Press

Gould, S.J. (1989). Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History. W.W. Norton & Co.

Gould, S.J. (1980) The Panda’s Thumb (1982 paperback ed.).

W.W. Norton and Co. Hamer, D. (2005). The God Gene: How Faith Is Hardwired in Our Genes. Anchor Books

Hamilton, W.D. (1964). “The Genetical Evolution of Social Behavior” (I and II). Journal of Theoretical Biology 7: 1-52

Harris, M. (1989). Our Kind: The Evolution of Human Life and Culture. Harper and Row

Harris, M. (1988). Theoretical Principles of Cultural Materialism, pp. 377-403, in High Points in Anthropology (2nd ed.)(eds. Bohannan and Glazer). McGraw-Hill

Harris, M. (1980). Cultural Materialism: The Struggle for a Science of Culture. AltaMira Press

Harris, S. (2012). Free Will. Free Press

Haviland, W.A. (1990). Cultural Anthropology (Sixth ed.). Holt Rinehart Winston

Herbers, J. (1993). “Ecological determinants of queen number in ants” in Queen Number and Sociality in Insects (ed. Keller). Oxford U. Press

Holldobler, B. and Wilson, E.O. (1994). Journey to the Ants. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard U. Press

Holldobler, B. and Wilson, E.O. (1990). Ants. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard U. Press

Hospers, J. (1971). Libertarianism: A Philosophy Whose Time Has Come. Reason Press

Hull, D.L. (1998). “The Ontological Status of Species as Evolutionary Units”, pp. 146-155, in Philosophy of Biology (ed. Ruse, M.). Prometheus Books

Huntington, S.P. (1996). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Simon and Schuster

Kano, T. (1992). The Last Ape: Pygmy Chimpanzee Behavior and Ecology. Stanford U. Press

Kitcher, P. (1985). Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and the Quest for Human Nature. MIT Press

Kline, M. (1953). Mathematics in Western Culture. Oxford U. Press

Kroeber, A.L. (1988). “The Concept of Culture in Science”, pp. 101-123, in High Points in Anthropology (2nd ed.)(eds. Bohannan and Glazer). McGraw-Hill

Kroeber, A.L. and Kluckhohn, C. (1963). Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and ethnology, 47. Harvard U. Press

Kruuk, H. (1989). The Social Badger. Oxford U. Press

Kummer, H. (1995). In Quest of the Sacred Baboon. Princeton U. Press

Kuhn, T.S. (1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (2nd ed.). University of Chicago Press

Leighton, D.R. (1986). “Hornbill Dispersion: Variations on a Monogamous Theme”, pp.108-130, in Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution (eds. Rubenstein and Wrangham). Princeton U. Press

Lenski, R.E. and Mittler, J.E. (1993). “The Directed Mutation Controversy and Neo- Darwinism”. Science 259: 188-194

Ligon, J.D. and Ligon, S.H. (1990). “Green Woodhoopoes: life history traits and sociality”, pp. 33-65, in Cooperative Breeding in Birds (eds. P.B. Stacey and W.D. Koenig). Cambridge U. Press

Lorenz, K. (1963). On Aggression. University Paperbacks

Machiavelli, N. (1952). The Prince. (ed. C. Gauss). Mentor Books

Malcom, J. and Marten, K. (1982). “Natural Selection and the Communal Rearing of Pups in African Wild Dogs (Lycaon pictus)”, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol 10: 1-13

Malinowski, B. (1988). “The Group and the Individual in Functional Analysis”, pp. 272-93, in High Points in Anthropology (2nd ed.)(eds. Bohannan and Glazer). McGraw- Hill

Malthus, Thomas R. (1993). An Essay on the Principle of Population. Oxford U. Press

Marzluff, J.M., and Balda, R.P. (1990). “Pinyon Jays: Making the Best of a Bad Situation by Helping”, pp. 199-237, in Cooperative Breeding in Birds (eds. P.B. Stacey and W.D. Koenig). Cambridge U. Press

Matsuda (1987). Animal Evolution in Changing Environments (with Special Reference to Abnormal Metamorphosis). Wiley Press

Mayr, E. (1982). The Growth of Biological Thought. Harvard U. Press

McGrew, W.C. (1998). “Culture in Nonhuman Primates?” Annual Review of Anthropology 27: 323

Meadows, D., et. al. (1972). The Limits to Growth. Signet

Mech, L. (1995). The Wolf: The Ecology and Behavior of an Endangered Species. University of Minnesota Press

Mendel, A.P. (1961). The Essential Works of Marxism. Bantam Books

Montagu, M.F.A. (1962). “Introduction”, pp. vii to xii, in Culture and the Evolution of Man. Oxford U. Press

Morgan, Lewis H. (1988). “Ancient Society”, pp. 29-60, in High Points in Anthropology (2nd ed.)(eds. Bohannan and Glazer). McGraw-Hill

Moritz, R., and Southwick, E. (1992). Bees as Superorganisms: An Evolutionary Reality, Springer-Verlag

Morris, D. (1967). The Naked Ape: A Zoologist’s Study of the Human Animal. McGraw-Hill

Nishida, T. (1987). “Local Traditions and Cultural Transmission”, pp. 462-74, in Primate Societies (eds. Smuts, et. al.). University of Chicago Press

Nishida, T. and Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M. (1987). “Chimpanzees and Bonobos: Cooperative Relationships among Males”, pp. 165-177, in Primate Societies (eds. Smuts, et. al.). University of Chicago Press

Nowak, M.A., Tarnita, C.E. and Wilson, E.O. (2010). “The Evolution of Sociality.” Nature 466: 1057-1062

O’Brien, M.J. and Holland, T.D. (1995). “The Nature and Premise of a Selection-Based Archaeology”, pp. 175-200, in Evolutionary Archaeology: Evolutionary Issues (ed. Teltser, P.A.). University of Arizona Press

Ornstein, R.E. (1992). The Evolution of Consciousness: of Darwin, Freud and Cranial Fire: the Origins of the Way We Think. Simon and Schuster

Park, J.H. (2007). “Persistent Misunderstandings of Inclusive Fitness and Kin Selection: Their Ubiquitous Appearance in Social Psychology Textbooks”, Evolutionary Psychology 2007. 5(4): 860-873

Pinker, S. (2002). The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature. Viking

Poirier, F.E., Stini, W.A., Wreden, K.B. (1994). In Search of Ourselves: An Introduction to Physical Anthropology. (5th ed.). Prentice Hall

Popper, Karl R. (1985). Selections. (ed. D. Miller). Princeton U. Press

Queller, D. and Strassman, J. (1998). “Kin selection and social insects”, Bioscience 48: pp. 165-75

Rabenold, K.N. (1990). “Campylorhynchus wrens: the ecology of delayed dispersal and cooperation in the Venezualan savanna”, pp. 159-196, in Cooperative Breeding in Birds (eds.: Stacey, P.B., and Koenig, W.D.). Cambridge U. Press

Radcliffe-Brown, A.R. (1988). “On the Concept of Function in Social Science”, pp. 294-304, in High Points in Anthropology (2nd ed.)(eds. Bohannan and Glazer). McGraw- Hill

Rand, A. (2005). Atlas Shrugged. Dutton

Rathus, S.A. (1990). Psychology (4th ed.). Holt Rinehart Winston

Ridley, Matt (1993). The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature. Macmillan

Rindos, D. (1989). “Undirected Variation and the Darwinian Explanation of Cultural Change”, in Archaeological Method and Theory, Vol. 1, pp. 1-45 (ed. M.B. Schiffer). University of Arizona Press

Rindos, D. (1986). “The Evolution of the Capacity for Culture: Sociobiology, Structuralism, and Cultural Selection”, Current Anthropology 27:315-332.

Ruse, M. (1989). The Darwinian Paradigm. Routledge

Russell, B. (1972). A History of Western Philosophy. Simon & Schuster, Inc.

Sahlins, M. (1988). “Evolution: Specific and General”, pp. 356-76, in High Points in Anthropology (2nd ed.)(eds. Bohannan and Glazer). McGraw-Hill

Sahlins, M. (1977). The Use and Abuse of Biology. University of Michigan Press

Saint Augustine (1958). City of God. Image Books, Doubleday

Schaller, G.B. (1972). The Serengeti Lion. University of Chicago Press

Schneider, D.M. (1973). “Preface”, pp. vi to xvii, in Matrilineal Kinship (eds. Schneider, DM. and Gough, K.). University of California Press

Shelley, F. and Clarke, A. (1994). Human and Cultural Geography. Wm. C. Brown Publishers

Silk, J. (1987). “Social Behavior in Evolutionary Perspective”, in Primate Societies (eds. Smuts, et. al.). University of Chicago Press

Simon, H. (1983). Reason in Human Affairs. Stanford U. Press

Simpson, George G. (1951). The Meaning of Evolution. New American Library

Skutch, A. (1987). Helpers at Bird’s Nests: A Worldwide Survey of Cooperative Breeding and Related Behavior. University of Iowa Press

Smith, A. (1952). An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Encyclopedia Britannica (Great Books Series)

Smith, J.N.N. (1990). “Summary”, pp. 593 to 611, in Cooperative Breeding in Birds (eds. P.B.

Sober, E. (1984). The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus. Bradford/MIT

Solomon, R.C. (1979). History and Human Nature: A Philosophical Review of European History and Culture, 1750-1850. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Stevenson, L. (1974). Seven Theories of Human Nature. Clarendon Press

Stevenson, L. and Haberman, D. L. (2008). Ten Theories of Human Nature. Oxford U. Press

Steward, Julian (1988). “The Concept and Method of Cultural Ecology”, pp. 319-332, in High Points in Anthropology (2nd ed.)(eds. Bohannan and Glazer). McGraw-Hill

Strum, S. (1987). Almost Human. Random House

Tomasello, M. (2009). Why We Cooperate. MIT Press

Trivers, R. (2011). The Folly of Fools: The Logic of Deceit and Self-Deception in Human Life. Basic Books

Trivers, R. (1971). “The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism”, The Quarterly Review of Biology 46:35-57.

Trivers, R. and Hare, H. (1976). “Haplodiploidy and the Evolution of the Social Insects”, Science 191:249-263

Tuchman, B. (1984). The March of Folly: from Troy to Vietnam. Ballentine Books

Turnbaugh, W.A., Nelson, H., Jurmain, R., Kilgore, L. (1993). Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archeology. (5th ed.). West Publishing

Trivers, R.L. and Hare, H. (1976). “Haplodiploidy and the Evolution of the Social Insects” Science 191: 249-263

Tylor, Edward Burnett (1988). “Primitive Culture”, pp. 61-78, in High Points in Anthropology (2nd ed.)(eds. Bohannan and Glazer). McGraw-Hill

Tylor, Edward Burnett (1871). Primitive Culture. Reissued by Cambridge U. Press

Velasquez, M. (1994). Philosophy (5th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing Co.

Wakeman, F., Jr. (1975). The Fall of Imperial China. Free Press

West-Eberhard, M.J. (2003). Developmental Plasticity and Evolution. Oxford U. Press

West-Eberhard, M.J. (1988). “Phenotypic plasticity and ‘genetic’ theories of insect sociality” in Evolution of Social Behavior and Integrative Levels (eds. Greenberg and Tobach), pp. 123-33. Lawrence Erlbaum.

West-Eberhard, M.J. (1987). “Flexible strategy and social evolution” in Animal Societies: Theories and Facts (eds. Brown and Kikkawa). Japan Scientific Societies Press.

White, Leslie A. (1988). “Energy and the Evolution of Culture”, pp. 337-355, in High Points in Anthropology (2nd ed.)(eds. Bohannan and Glazer). McGraw-Hill

White, Leslie A. (1949). The Science of Culture: A Study of Man and Civilization. Farrar, Strauss and Co.

Williams, G.C. (1965). Adaptation and Natural Selection. Princeton U. Press

Wilson, D.S. and Sober, E. (1994). “Re-introducing Group Selection to the Human Behavioral Sciences”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17:585-654

Wilson, E.O. (2012). The Social Conquest of Earth. W.W. Norton and Co. Wilson, E.O. (1998). Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. Alfred A. Knoff

Wilson, E.O. (1980). Sociobiology (abridged). Harvard U. Press

Wilson, E.O. (1978). On Human Nature. Harvard U. Press

Wilson, E.O. (1971). The Insect Societies. Harvard U. Press

Wolff, R.P. (1970). In Defense of Anarchism. Harper & Row

Wynne-Edwards, V.C. (1962). Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behavior. Oliver and Boyd

Dynastic Theory ~ Bibliography

Dynastic Theory: The Evolution of Altruism in Animal Societies.Abbot, P. et. al. (2011). “Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality.” Nature 471 (March 24, 2011).

Abbott, D.H., Barett, J. and George, L.M. (1993). “Comparative aspects of the social suppression of reproduction in female marmosets and tamarins”, pp. 152-63, in Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behviour and Ecology. (A.B. Rylands ed.) Oxford U. Press

Abegglen, J. (1984). On Socialization in Hamadryas Baboons: A Field Study. Bucknell U. Press

Alatalo, R. and Helle, P. (1990). “Alarm Calling by Individual Willow Tits, Parus montanus”, in Animal Behaviour 40:437-442.

Alcock, J. (1993). Animal Behavior (5th ed.). Sinauer Associates

Alexander, R., Noonan, K. and Crespi, B. (1991). “The Evolution of Eusociality” in The Biology of the Naked Mole Rat (eds. P. Sherman, J. Jarvis and R. Alexander). Princeton U. Press

Alexander, R. and Sherman, P. (1977). “Local mate competition and parental investment in social insects” Science 196:494-500

Alloway, T.M., Buschinger, A., Talbot, M., Stuart, R., and Thomas, C. (1982). “Pologyny and polydomy in three North American species of the ant genus Leptothorax Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)” in Psyche 89(3-4):249-74

Altman, J. (1980). Baboon Mothers and Infants. Harvard U. Press

Armitage, K. (1986). “Marmot polygyny re-visited”, pp. 303-331, in Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution (ed. D.I. Rubenstein and R.W. Wrangham). Princeton U. Press

Arms, K., and Camp, P. (1987). Biology (3rd ed.). Holt, Rinehart and Winston

Barash, D. (2007). Natural Selections: Selfish Altruists, Honest Liars and Other Realities of Evolution. Bellevue Literary Press

Barash, D. (1989). Marmots: Social Behavior and Biology. Stanford U. Press

Bartz, S.H. and Holldobler, B (1982). “Colony founding in Myrmecostus mimicus Wheeler (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the evolution of foundress associations” in Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 11: 223-228

Bearder, S. (1987). “Lorises, Bushbabies, and Tarsiers: Diverse Societies in Solitary Foragers”, pp. 11-24, in Primate Societies (eds.: Smuts, et. al.). University of Chicago Press.

Bekoff, M. and Wells, M.C. (1980). “Social Ecology and Behavior of Coyotes”, Scientific American 242: 130-48

Belas, R. (1997). “Proteus Mirabilis and Other Swarming Bacteria”, pp. 183-219, in Bacteria as Multicellular Organisms (eds. Shapiro and Dworkin). Oxford U. Press

Bell, G. (1982). The Masterpiece of Nature. Croom Helm.

Bennett, N.C., Faulkes, C.G., and Jarvis, J. (1999). “Socially Induced Infertility, Incest Avoidance and the Monopoly of Reproduction in Cooperatively Breeding African Mole-Rats, Family Bathyergidae”, Advances in the Study of Behavior 28:75-114

Bertram, B.C.R. (1976). “Kin Selection in Lions and in Evolution”, pp. 281-301, in Growing Points in Ethology. (eds. Bateson, P.P.G. and Hinde, R.A.). Cambridge U. Press

Bertram, B.C.R. (1975). “Social Factors Influencing Reproduction in Wild Lions”, Journal of Zoology 177:463-82.

Bethell, T. (1998). “Darwin’s Mistake”, pp. 85-92, in Philosophy of Biology (ed. M. Ruse). Prometheus Books. Amherst, N.Y.

Boardman, R., Cheetham, A., Oliver, O. (1973). “Introducing Coloniality”, pp. v to ix, in Animal Colonies: Development and Function through Time. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross

Bolton, B. (1986). “Apterous Females and Shift of Dispersal Strategy in the Monomorium salomonis-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)”. Journal of Natural History 20:267-272

Bonner, J.T. (1980). The Evolution of Culture in Animals. Princeton U. Press

Bonner, J.T. (1971). Cells and Societies. Princeton U. Press

Boomsma, J.J. et. al. (2011). “Only full-sibling families evolved eusociality.” Nature 471 (2011)

Boomsma, J.J., Frouwer, A.H., and Van Loon, A.J. (1990). “A new polygynous Lasius species (Hymenoptera; Formicidae) from Central Europe. II. Allozymatic confirmation of species status and social structure”. Insectes Sociaux 37:363-75

Bourke, A.F.G. (1991). “Queen behaviour, reproduction and egg cannibalism in multiple-queen colonies of the ant Leptothorax acervorum”. Animal Behaviour 42:295-310

Bourke, A. and Franks, N. (1995). Social Evolution in Ants. Princeton U. Press

Brown, C. and Brown, M. (1996). Coloniality in the Cliff Swallows: The Effect of Group Size on Social Behavior. U. of Chicago Press

Brown, J.C. and Brown, E.R. (1990). “Mexican Jays: Uncooperative Breeding”, pp. 269-88, in Cooperative Breeding in Birds (eds.: Stacey, P.B., and Koenig, W.D.). Cambridge U. Press

Bujalska, G. (1990). “Social System of the Bank Vole”, pp. 155-67, in Social Systems and Population Cycles in Voles (eds. Tamarin, R.H., Ostfeld, R.S., Pugh, S.R. and Bujelska, G.). Birkhauser Verlag

Burnet, F.M. (1971). “‘Self-recognition’ in Colonial Marine Forms and Flowering Plants in Relation to Immunity”, Nature 232:230-33

Burt, A. and Trivers, R. (2008). Genes in Conflict: The Biology of Selfish Genetic Elements. Harvard U. Press

Buss, L.W. (1982). “Somatic cell parasitism and the evolution of somatic tissue compatibility”, in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:5337-5341 (September).

Butlin, R.K., Schon, I., Griffiths, H.I. (1998). “Introduction to Reproductive Modes”, pp. 1-24, in Sex and Parthenogenesis: Evolutionary Ecology of Reproductive Modes in Non-Marine Ostracods (ed. Martens, K.). Backhuys Publishers, Leiden

Caine, N.G. (1993). “Flexibility and Co-operation as unifying themes in Saguinus social organization and behaviors: the role of prdation pressures”, pp, 200-219, in Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour and Ecology (ed. Rylands, A.B.). Oxford U. Press

Campbell, B. (1987). Humankind Emerging (5th ed.). Scott, Foresman and Company

Campbell, J. (1982). “Autonomy in Evolution”, pp. 190-201, in Perspectives on Evolution (ed. Milkman, R.). Sinauer Associates

Carlin, N.F., Reeve, H.K., Cover, S.R. (1993). “Kin discrimination and division of labour among matrilines in the polygynous carpenter ant, Camponotus planatus”, pp. 362-401, in Queen Number and Sociality in Insects (ed. Keller, L.). Oxford U. Press

Cheney, D.L. (1987). “Interactions and Relationships Between Groups”, pp. 267-81, in Primate Societies (eds. Smuts, et. al.). U. of Chicago Press

Cheney, D.L. and Wrangham, R.W. (1987). “Predation”, pp. 227-239, in Primate Societies (eds. Smuts, et. al.). U. of Chicago Press

Clutton-Brock, T.H. (1991). The Evolution of Parental Care. Princeton U. Press

Craig, J.L. and Jamieson, I.G. (1990). “Pukeko: Different Approaches and Some Different Answers”, in Cooperative Breeding in Birds (eds.: Stacey, P.B., and Koenig, W.D.). Cambridge U. Press

Creel, S. and Creel, N.M. (1995). “Communal hunting and pack size in African wild dogs, Lycaon pictus”. J. Anim. Behav. 50:1325-1339.

Crockett, C.M. and Eisenberg, J.F. (1987). “Howlers: Variations in Group Size and Demography”, pp. 54-68, in Primate Societies (eds. Smuts, et. al.). U. of Chicago Press

Crow, J.F. (2000). “Centennial: J.B.S. Haldane -1962.” In Perspectives on Genetics: Anecdotal, Historical and Critical. (eds. Crow and Dove). U. Wisconsin Press.

Crozier, R.H. (1992). “The genetic evolution of flexible strategies”, American Naturalist 139: 218-223

Curry, R.L. and Grant, P.R. (1990). “Galapagos Mockingbirds: Territorial Cooperative Breeding in a Climactically Variable Environment”, in Cooperative Breeding in Birds (eds.: Stacey, P.B., and Koenig, W.D.). Cambridge U. Press

Darwin, C. (1958). The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882 (ed. Barlow, N.). W.W. Norton

Darwin, C. (1952a). The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (Great Books Series). Encyclopedia Britannica

Darwin, C. (1952b). The Descent of Man (Great Books Series). Encyclopedia Britannica

Darwin, F. (1887), “Chapter 1, The Foundations of the ‘Origin of Species'”, in Darwin, Francis, The life and letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter., vol. 2, London: John Murray

Dawkins, R. (1989). The Selfish Gene (2nd ed.). Oxford U. Press

Dawkins, R. (1986). The Blind Watchmaker. Longmans

Dawkins, R. (1979). “Twelve misunderstandings of kin selection.” Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie. 51, 184-200.

Dennett, D. (1995). Darwin’s Dangerous Idea. Simon and Schuster. Dennett, D. (1991). Consciousness Explained. Little, Brown & Co.

De Waal, F. (2006). Primates and Philosphers: How Morality Evolved. (Eds. Macedo, S. and Ober, J.). Princeton U. Press

Doolittle, W.F. (1982). “Selfish DNA after Fourteen Months”, pp. 3-28, in Genome Evolution. (eds. Dover, G.A. and Flavell, R.B.). Academic Press

Douglas-Hamilton, I., and Douglas-Hamilton, O. (1975). Among the Elephants. Collins

Dow, D.D. and Whitmore, M.J. (1990). “Noisy Miners: Variations on the Theme of Communality”, pp. 561-92, in Cooperative Breeding in Birds (eds. Stacey, P.B., and Koenig, W.D.). Cambridge U. Press

Dublin, H. (1983). “Cooperation and reproductive competition among female African elephants” in Social Behavior of Female Vertebrates (ed. S. Wasser). Academic Press

Dugatkin, L. 1997. Cooperation Among Animals: An Evolutionary Perspective. Oxford U. Press

Dunbar, R.I.M. (1988). Primate Social Systems. Comstock Pub Assoc. Dunford, C. (1977). “Kin selection for ground squirrel alarm calls” in American Naturalist 111: 782-785

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Epigenetic Evolution

Epigenetic Evolution: A Theory of Cultural Evolution through Directed CreativityExcerpt from the Introduction:

If we observed another species evolve as dramatically as modern humans have over past many thousands of years, we would presume that the change was genetic—the natural selection of genetic variation must be involved. But this has not played a significant role in the evolution from hunters and gatherers to the modern culture. We know this because, over time, we see little or no change in human biology, including the capacities for culture. The evolution of irrigation agriculture did not require genes for irrigation agriculture. When modern hunters and gatherers emigrate to an industrial culture, they can adapt, and vice-versa.

The cause of the evolution from stone to bronze to iron and beyond—and thus the trajectory towards more, more and more—must therefore rest in the capacities for culture, as they evolved in our pre-cultural ancestors. Hence, if we can identify what has caused our capacities for culture to be put towards these ends, and understand the process by which culture evolves, we might also be able to ascertain whether we are able to control our future evolutionary trajectory.

That is the object of this book: to elaborate a theory of human cultural evolution. This theory builds on certain key concepts of anthropology and sociobiology, rejects others, and fills in gaps.

A theory of cultural evolution must carefully delineate the relationship among culture, human biology and natural selection. Criteria for such a theory include:

  • Explain the general direction of cultural evolution, the long arc.
  • Account for diversity among cultures.
  • Describe the process by which culture evolves.
  • These must be done while holding human biology constant.
  • Explain how natural selection of genetic variation could give rise to the biological capacities for culture, yet does not appear to be significantly implicated in cultural evolution for the past many thousands of years.

I will add one additional criterion. A previous book, Dynastic Theory: The Evolution of Altruism in Animal Societies, set forth a theory of the biological evolution of group adaptations in all other species—including our pre-cultural, hominid ancestors. A key component of this theory is that animal societies are structured through natal philopatry—what I call dynastic structure. Members of an animal society are related by descent to a common founder of the society. Human societies are not structured dynastically. Although families are central to social structures in all societies, group bonds in large modern societies extend far beyond kinship. A theory of cultural evolution must explain why human societies are an exception to the rule in other animal societies.

The theory is called epigenetic evolution: a theory of cultural evolution through directed creativity. In brief, the theory holds that human minds create, select and build the “library” of culture, which exists above the level of individual humans. Because culture is communicated from minds to minds through language, culture evolves separate from the pathway of biological reproduction and inheritance—and, thus, is decoupled from natural selection. But as minds create, select and build culture, they are biased in a Darwinian direction. This is because, as the human brain evolved through natural selection in our pre-cultural ancestors, the psychology that motivates the brain to action co-evolved with it.

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Dynastic Theory

Dynastic Theory: The Evolution of Altruism in Animal Societies.Excerpt from the Introduction:

A theory of the evolution of altruism should explain the evolutionary roots of human psychology—both selfishness and unselfishness, including loyalty and patriotism. It should do so honestly, without artifice, without contradiction. It should be able to explain why social animals draw the cooperative boundaries at the level of their own societies. It should not have to explain that a soldier ant defending its colony is really selfishly propagating its own genes—even when colony members are related by some implausibly remote degree. It should not have to explain that altruism requires leaps in order to evolve.

But as science philosopher Thomas Kuhn observed, once a scientific theory has achieved paradigm status, it does not die because of the accumulation of facts which contradict it; it dies only when an alternative theory takes its place. (Kuhn 1970, p. 77).

Thus, the ultimate purpose of this book: to set forth a theory that explains adaptations at the level of the colony, pack, and tribe; explains how traits that benefit animal societies but are self-sacrificing at the level of the individual have evolved; and explains how they evolve if they are just slightly advantageous. It is called “dynastic theory,” after the way in which animal societies (other than humans) are structured—because societies are formed and maintained through natal philopatry (offspring and further descendants remaining with their parent(s)), each is a family dynasty. Dynastic theory, which has nothing in common with the theory of group selection advocated by D.S. Wilson and, more recently by E.O. Wilson, except the recognition that group altruism exists, is set forth in Section Two. Its implications for the origins of human group adaptations, for the theory of natural selection, and for a theory of human cultural evolution, are set forth in Implications, which concludes this book.

To clear the way, however, it will first be necessary to thoroughly lay bare the fallacies of kin selection’s logic and predictions. This is Section One.

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About the Author & Project

Britt W. Hanson
Britt W. Hanson

Each of these three books aims to solve a significant scientific puzzle: the evolution of group altruism; the evolution of culture and its relationship to natural selection; and the function of sex. Along the way, these books present theories of human nature, creativity, free will, and goal-directed causation, while also unloosening biology and the social sciences from the shackles of mechanical determinism.

I did not set out to do any of this. In the mid-1990s, I had asked a simple question: why, over the millennia, has the human species put its ingenuity towards extracting more and more resources and generating more and more people? And this follow-up question: do we have any control over this trajectory, or is it somehow ingrained in us?

When I couldn’t find an answer to these in the social sciences, I turned to evolution, expecting that what modern humans do should have some connection with what our ancestors evolved to do. Eventually I stumbled onto sociobiology. I became persuaded that a fundamental thesis of sociobiology must be correct: human culture must derive from human biology, as evolved through natural selection. The alternative is a blank slate hypothesis. But the more I examined sociobiology, the more I also became persuaded that most of the rest of its propositions were wrong.

My skepticism began with kin selection. In On Human Nature, E.O. Wilson stated that kin selection accounted for cooperation among close relatives, implying that kin selection could explain tribalism in our ancestors. This led me to wonder how modern human societies could have expanded so far beyond tribes of close kin. I searched for sources that would provide a rationale for how kin selection works. In The Selfish Gene, Richard Dawkins emphasized again and again that kin selection does not predict tribalism at all. It is not a group theory. It is a theory of selfish individualism. Dawkins argued that group altruism is impossible, even theoretically. Although Dawkins is a persuasive writer, this did not seem right. Human groups, including tribes, are real. And the more I examined Dawkins’ selfish gene rationale for kin selection, the more I questioned its plausibility.

My interest was in humans, but it occurred to me that animal societies could not function if each individual member calculated altruism by degrees of relatedness, as predicted by kin selection. Poring over studies of animal societies, I quickly came to see that animals bestow altruism according to group membership, not degree of relatedness. In Ants and The Social Insects, E.O. Wilson made clear that this is true of ants and other social insects. So why then were evolutionary biologists, including Wilson, so enthusiastically proclaiming that kin selection was correct? Where were the skeptics?

In 1998, I came across two articles by Mary Jane West-Eberhard, which cast doubt upon kin selection. These articles contained what to me was a surprising, extraordinary fact: the division between queens and worker castes is epigenetic. This was directly at odds with the way that kin selection modeled the existence of “selfish” queens and “altruistic” workers as due to rival alleles for selfishness and altruism. Epigenesis didn’t solve the problem of altruism—some genetic selection must occur for worker altruism to evolve—but it did lead me from simple skepticism to a conviction that kin selection was just plain wrong. Evolutionary biology needed a theory that explained altruism at the level of the group. The theories of group selection, however, used the same gene-centered approach as did kin selection, and they were thus not persuasive, either. So I set out to devise a theory of group altruism. The outline of what I eventually called “dynastic theory” came about in short order.

Dynastic theory explains why animal societies are structured around lines of descent—what I call “dynastic structure”—and, hence, are groups of kin. I could project this structure to bands and tribes of human pre-cultural ancestors. But this still didn’t account for the fact that modern human societies have bonds that extend far beyond kinship.

I set myself to the task of figuring this out. I guessed that the solution had something to do with the distinctive way in which humans evolve, through culture. This was something else that sociobiology did not seem to get right. In places, sociobiologists were suggesting that human culture evolves just like natural selection, or maybe even through natural selection. At other times, sociobiologists pointed out that human biology has hardly changed over the past tens of thousands of years and that biological differences do not account for cultural differences. If so, natural selection of genetic variation could have nothing to do with the evolution of culture. Moreover, when I thought through specific examples of the evolution of cultural traits, it became clear that culture evolves independently of natural selection. The trick was to explain how this could happen. What emerged, in the year 2000, was a theory of cultural evolution: the theory of directed creativity.

This theory—and in particular, the very concept of creativity—conflicted with determinism, which is a premise of science. I was reluctant to open this can of worms, but it seemed too important not to do so. What emerged was a theory of guided free will and a theory of teleological causation—which is not to be confused with cosmic purpose or theology.

Meanwhile, during my reviews of kin selection, I became aware that biologists regard the function of sex as an unsolved evolutionary puzzle. This was striking. Biologists were heralding the neo-Darwinian synthesis as completing Darwin’s theory, yet the synthesis couldn’t account for a trait as apparently fundamental and as (nearly) ubiquitous as sex? Adding to the puzzle, to be consistent with kin selection, sociobiologists were asserting that sex must hurdle two-for-one leaps of benefits in order to evolve from asexual reproduction.

By this time, I had become thoroughly skeptical of almost every aspect of the neo-Darwinian framework. And since dynastic theory solved the problem of altruism without the need for leaps, I thought I might also easily solve the puzzle of sex. This quest, however, turned out to be far more difficult and time-consuming than solving altruism and cultural evolution. A sketch of the theory of sex and conjugation was completed by the end of 2002, but by then I was exhausted and needed to make a living. I took up these projects again several years later, attempting to put the several theories into comprehensible, readable forms. Given the scope and magnitude of the subject matter, this has taken several years. I hope that I have succeeded.

I realize that what these three books purport to accomplish appears to be all quite grand. I also realize that it is possible that they are simply grandiose.

The reader will rightly be skeptical, all the more so since I am not a trained evolutionary biologist, an anthropologist, or a philosopher. I am a lawyer. One of the questions that I asked myself early on in developing dynastic theory, and kept asking throughout the project, was how someone like me could possibly perceive flaws in evolutionary theory and put together improved theories. I think that my outside perspective proved to be essential. When a puzzle remains unsolved, it is usually because errors are embedded in orthodox assumptions that are so ingrained that no one questions them. In this case, the ingrained assumptions are embodied in the neo-Darwinian synthesis—a synthesis that became orthodoxy, became identified with Darwin, and then hardened into a phalanx of concepts and doctrines that is extremely difficult to breach. That is why outstanding scientists keep mulling over the same ideas and falling short of solutions. As science historian Thomas Kuhn observed, “normal science” occurs inside a scientific discipline; significant change arrives from the outside, from those who challenge ingrained assumptions. I didn’t begin with a priori assumptions. I began with the empirical patterns, then worked backwards until the puzzles were solved. The reader will judge whether I have solved them successfully.

Most of all, though, the end hope is that these books might contribute to the understanding of the questions that prompted them: why has our species evolved in the direction of more, more, and more? And do we have a choice?

–Britt Hanson