Genetic Experimentation ~ Table of Contents

Genetic Experimentation: The Adaptive Function of Sex & ConjugationINTRODUCTION 1
Mendel, Neo-Darwinism, and the Problem of Sex 4
Mendel, Neo-Darwinism, and Point Mutations 8
The Doctrine of Blind Variation 10
Proof that Organisms Engage in Genetic Experimentation—Even within the Framework of
      Population Genetics 12
Opening the Black Box: The Immune System and Genetic Engineering 19
Opening the Black Box: Conjugation as Genetic Engineering 21
Opening the Black Box: Shifts in the Meanings of “Gene” and “Mutation” 24
Opening the Black Box: The Evolution of Proteins through Genetic Rearrangement 25
Opening the Black Box: Transposons, Introns, and Exons 26
Opening the Black Box: Noncoding DNA 28
Opening the Black Box: Homeotic Genes 30
Evolution through Changes in Developmental Sequences 31
Speciation through Polyploidization 35
The Connection between Sex and Genetic Rearrangements 36
Genetic Experimentation: The Continuum from Conjugation and Sex 40
Point Mutations and the Rival Allele Model of Evolution: Why Have They Stuck? 43
Directed Variation and Rearrangements 52
Organisms as Epigenetic Systems: Perceptive and Flexible 54
Organisms as Epigenetic Systems: The Genetic Library 56
The Genetic Library: Atavism and Homoplasy 56
The Genetic Library: Genomic Imprinting 60
The Genetic Library: The Contextual Shift Hypothesis 62
The Genetic Library: Its Significance for Genetic Experimentation 63
Communicating Environmental Information to Reproductive Cells 66
Criteria for Evaluating Theories of Sex 69
Theories of Sex that Do Not Acknowledge Genetic Experimentation 71
Theories that Do Acknowledge Sex as Experimentation 73
Sex, Recombination, and Rearrangements 78
A Higher Level of Genetic Experimentation? 80
Epilogue: Philosophical Implications of Directed Experimentation 84
BIBLIOGRAPHY 95

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